序言—海洋哺乳动物

海洋哺乳动物是哺乳类中适于海洋环境的特殊类群,通常被称作“海兽”。是海洋中的胎生、哺乳、肺呼吸、恒温、身体流线形、前肢特化为鳍状的脊椎动物。他们的祖先是在陆地上生活的,为了躲避敌害或是捕食而二次下水,属于次水生生物。海洋哺乳动物主要包括鲸目 (Cetacea)、鳍脚目(Pinnipedia)和海牛目(Sirenia)。全世界有各种海兽118种,我国现有记录的海兽有41种。
海兽具有极高的经济价值,如鳍脚类的毛皮是优良的纺织原料;鲸脑油是很多精密仪器润滑油的原材料;人工饲养海豚进行表演,深受人们喜爱。此外,海兽还具有重要的科研价值,对海洋生态系统的健康状况具有重要的警示作用;海兽具有超强的潜水能力、声纳探测能力、体温调节和发达的智力,是仿生学研究的重要对象;不少国家甚至驯养海豚为军事和潜水作业服务,充当海洋牧场的“警犬”等工作。
然而,由于全球范围内的过度开发海洋、利用海洋,海洋哺乳动物受到商业捕鲸的过度屠戮、水质污染和气候变暖等因素影响,海洋哺乳动物的种类、数量急剧下降,有超过三分之一的海洋哺乳动物濒临灭绝。我们人类并不是海洋的主宰,而是和海洋哺乳动物一样,只是地球大家庭中的成员之一,人类应该以更加开放的胸襟和谦逊的姿态,去认识海洋,感悟这些美丽而艰危的生灵,和他们一起分享蓝色的海洋。
Introduction of Marine Mammals
Marine mammals is a special groups of mammals that adapted to marine environments, they are viviparous and lactational, with lungs, constant temperature, streamlined body and forelimbs evolved into flipper. Their ancestor was living on land, in order to prey or avoid predator, they adapted to the marine environments, they are also called as “secondary water animals”. Marine mammals mainly including Cetacea, Pinnipedia and Sirenia. There are 118 marine mammal species around the world, and 41species of them are recorded in China.
Marine mammals have very high economic values, such as fur of the Pinnipedia is excellent textile materials; spermaceti is the raw materials of lubricating oil for many precision instruments; dolphin shows in ocean parks are loved by many people. In addition, marine mammals also have important scientific values, they are important warning species to the health of the marine ecosystem; they have super diving ability, sonar detection ability, thermoregulation and developed intelligence, marine mammals are desired study subjects of bionics research; Many countries even domesticate dolphins
However, due to the excessive development and usage of the ocean worldwide, marine mammals were influenced by excessive slaughter from commercial whaling, water pollution and global warming, the abundance and biodiversity of marine mammals were dramatic declined, more than one third of marine mammal species are endangered. Human being is not the master of ocean, just a member of the earth family, as well as the marine mammals. We should be more open in mind and modest to recognize the ocean, to appreciate those beauty and endangered creatures and share the blue ocean with them.

 

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