灰鲸简介

灰鲸简介

灰鲸(Eschrichtius robustus)隶属鲸目Cetacea,须鲸亚目Mysticeti,灰鲸科Eschrichtiidae,灰鲸属Eschrichtius,本属仅灰鲸一种。目前世界上有东太平洋和西太平洋两个灰鲸种群,沿美洲侧洄游的称东太平洋种群,沿亚洲侧洄游的称西太平洋种群。东、西太平洋灰鲸种群都曾因为商业捕鲸的过度捕猎,资源遭到严重破坏。东太平洋种群经过长期的保护,资源已得到恢复,而西太平洋种群仍濒临灭绝。
The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), is a baleen whale, which is the only living species in the genus Eschrichtius, and the only living genus in the family Eschrichtiidae. Gray whales are presently recognized as two populations: the western North Pacific population and the eastern North Pacific population. Because of over commercial whaling, resources of these two populations had once been severely declined. The eastern gray whale population has recovered to near pre-exploitation after conservation, while the western gray whale population is still on the verge of extinction.
最近研究发现,西太平洋种群数量约为130头,其中具有生殖潜力的成年雌性个体可能只有30头左右,被认为是世界上最为濒危的大型鲸类种群。国际自然保护联盟(IUCN)受胁物种红色名录将其列为“极危”(CR)的等级,我国将其列为国家二级重点保护野生动物。
According to the latest population investigation, there are no more than 130 individuals in western North Pacific (Asian) population, and only about 30 females are observed. Therefore, the western population is listed as critically endangered by the IUCN. In China, this species has been listed as Grade II National Key Protected Animal
灰鲸具有每年在摄食场和繁殖场之间来回迁徙的习性,迁移距离长达1.0-2.2万公里,是海洋哺乳动物中迁徙距离最长的物种。西太灰鲸种群的夏季摄食场位于萨哈林岛东北海域,但冬季繁殖场和迁徙路线目前尚不完全确定。东太平洋灰鲸每年的5-9月份,在楚科奇海、白令海和鄂霍次克海觅食,11-12月份,开始向南迁徙,达到下加利福尼亚、墨西哥海域的繁殖场产仔。
Gray whale migrates between feeding and breeding grounds yearly, the migration route up to 11000-22000 km, it is the longest migration distance of all marine mammals. The western gray whale feeds at the Okhotsk Sea, Northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island in summer, while little is known about the current migratory route and breeding ground. The eastern gray whale ranges from calving areas off Baja California, Mexico, to feeding areas in Chukchi ,Bering and Okhotsk Seas.
上世纪50至60年代,我国海域共捕获5头成体和3头幼体灰鲸,1933年以来,我国海域共有记录的灰鲸搁浅事件6起,其中5起是发生在上世纪50年代以前。最近的一次灰鲸搁浅发生在1996年11月中旬的辽宁省庄河市,之后我国海域再无关于灰鲸的报道。
During 1950s to 1960s, there were 5 adult and 3 young Gray whales had been captured in Chinese waters. Additionally, 6 individuals were stranded since 1933, and 5 of them were happened before 1950s. The most recent stranding record was happened at Zhuanghe, Liaoning Province, in 1966

平潭灰鲸

2011年11月5日,福建省平潭县白青乡青峰村渔民出海做业时发现一头死亡的大型鲸类,浑身被定置网缠绕,将其拖运至青峰村海滩。经国家海洋局第三海洋研究所海洋珍稀动植物保护中心科研人员鉴定,该大型鲸类为极其珍稀濒危的灰鲸,我所科研人员对其进行了外部形态参数测量后,遂将其转运至平潭县流水镇建隆水产冷冻厂进行解剖,经厦门市水陆生物制品研究所制作成剥制标本和骨骼标本各一具,保存于国家海洋局第三海洋研究所生物样品馆。
A large whale entangled with set-net was found at Pingtan by fisherman on November 5, 2011. It was identified as Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus ) by scientists of the Research Center for Rare Marine Flora and Fauna, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration. The external morphological characteristics and skeleton of this Gray whale were measured. Then it was made as a stuffed specimen and a skeleton specimen, stored in the sample library of the Third Institute of Oceanography.
该灰鲸体长1309cm,体重约21t,体背灰黑色,腹部灰白,全身布满白色斑点/斑块,系寄生虫遗留的伤痕。为本种在我国海域搁浅/捕获记录中的最大个体。是福建省的首次灰鲸搁浅案例,也是本世纪以来我国海域首次灰鲸搁浅事件。
The gray whale is 1309cm in body length, about 21t in weight,with black back and gray belly and covered with white spot scars form parasites. It is the largest one bycaught in the Chinese waters so far. And this is the first bycaught record in Fujian Province, and the first record in the Chinese waters in the 21th century as well.

灰鲸标本制作过程Process of Specimen making

皮层剥离Peeling skin--蒸汽脱肉 Steaming from meat--骨肉分离 Seperating bones and meat--表皮处理Tanning skin--模型制作Model making--缝制表皮Sewing tanned skin--剥制标本The stuffed specimen--骨骼标本 The skeleton specimen

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